# BG 1st Semester Physics Notes/Study Material Kashmir University

(Cartesian Coordinate System)
The most common coordinate system
for representing positions in space is
one based on three perpendicular s
patial axes generally designated x, y,
and z.
Any point P may be represented by
three signed numbers, usually written
(x, y, z) where the coordinate is the
perpendicular distance from the plane
formed by the other two axes.
Often positions are specified by a position
vector r which can be expressed in terms of
the coordinate values and associated unit
vectors.

Syllabus of Physics 1st semester Kashmir University

Unit – I
Review of Vector Algebra, Gradient, Divergence and Curl of a vector and their significance, Vector triple product.
Coordinate systems: Spherical coordinates, Polar coordinates and Spherical Polar coordinates and cylindrical coordinates.
Mechanics of a single particle and system of particles: Newton’s laws of motion, Mechanics of a particle,Equation of motion of a particle, Motion of a charged particle in an electromagnetic field, Mechanics of a
system of particles
Unit – II
Special relativity, Time Dilation, Doppler effect, Length Contraction, Twin Paradox, Relativistic
momentum, Mass and Energy, Energy and Momentum, General relativity, Einstein’s theory of gravitation,Lorentz transformation.

Unit – III
Inverse square Law – Field and Potential: Laws of gravitational and electrostatic forces, Gravitational and
electrostatic field potentials, Lines of force and equipotential surfaces, Fields and potentials of dipole and quadrupole, Potential due to a charge distribution at large distances, Field equations.
Motion in a central force field: Equivalent one body problem, Motion in a central force field, Motion in an inverse square law force filed, Equation of orbit, Kepler’s laws of planetary motion.

Unit – IV
Oscillations: Simple harmonic oscillator, Damped harmonic oscillator, Forced oscillations, Coupled oscillations, Simple pendulum, Compound pendulum.
PHYSICS
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