Chemistry Study Material For 4th Semester Kashmir University
Syllabus: Students are Advised to check syllabus on official website of Kashmir University.
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Unit-I Coordination and Bioinorganic Chemistry: (16 Contact hours)
Experimental verification of Werner’s theory. Effective Atomic number: Concept and its
Stereochemistry of Coordination compounds: With coordination numbers 2-6; Optical and
Geometrical isomers of MA4B2, MA3B3 and MABCD type Complexes.
Bonding in Complexes: Comparison of valence bond and Crystal field theories; CFT of
tetrahedral, square planner and octahedral systems. Factors affecting magnitude of ∆ ; pairing
energy and CFSE of weak and strong field ligands. Limitations of Crystal field theory.
Applications of Coordination compounds. Jahn Teller Distortion.
Biomolecules and their Metal coordination behaviour: Proteins, Nucleic acids and Lipids.
Abundance of elements in living systems; Concept and Criteria for essentiality of elements in
Distribution and biological role of essential elements in life: Na+
, Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+ and
Haemoglobin and Chlorophyl: Structural and Biological role.
Unit-II Amines and Nitrogen bearing
(14 Contact hours)
Amines: Classification and factors affecting basicity of amines.Mechanistic detailes(wherever
applicable) of methods of formation of alkyl and arylamines through reduction of nitro
compounds and nitriles.Gabriel-Phthalamide reaction and Hofmann rearrangement. Mechanisms
involved in the formation and reactions of arenediazonium salts including Azo coupling.
Heterocyclic compounds bearing one nitrogen atom: Stuctural features of pyrrole,pyrrolidine,
pyridine and piperidine and comparative account of their basic strength.Aromaticity and
electrophilic substitution reactions of pyrrole and their comparison with those of furan and
thiophene.Mechanisms involved in the preparations of Indole and quinoline using Fischer-Indole
and Bishlier-Napierlaski syntheses.
Unit-III States of Matter:
Gaseous State: Deviation of gases from ideal behavior, van der Waal’s equation of state.
Critical Phenomenon: PV isotherms of real gases, continuity of states, the isotherms of van der
Waal’s equation. Relationship between critical constants and van der Waal’s constants, the law of
corresponding states, reduced equation of state.
Molecular velocities: Root mean square, average and most probable velocities; qualitative
discussion of the Maxwell’s distribution of molecular velocities. Collision number, mean free
path and collision diameter.
Liquid State: Liquification of gases and adiabatic expansion. Intermolecular forces. Structure of
liquids (a qualitative description), structural differences between solids, liquids and gases.
Solid State: Symmetry elements in crystals, Lattice planes and Miller indices. X-ray diffraction
by crystals, derivation of Bragg’s equation and its application. Interplanar distances in terms of
miller indices. Determination of crystal structure by Laue’s method and powder method.
Systematic absence of diffraction lines in the X-ray pattern of cubic crystals with reference to
NaCl, KCl & CsCl.
(18 Contact hours)
Spectroscopy: Electromagnetic radiation, regions of the spectrum, basic features of different
spectrometers. Statement of Born-Oppenheimer approximation.
Rotational spectrum: Moment of inertia, classification of molecules on the basis of moment of
inertia. Energy of a rigid diatomic rotor, selection rules for rotational transition and associated
spectrum, relative population of rotational levels and spectral intensity, determination of bond
Vibrational Spectrum: Classical and quantum mechanical (qualitative) treatment of simple
harmonic oscillator, selection rules for vibrational transition, pure vibrational spectrum of a
diatomic molecule, determination of force constant, relation of force constant with bond length
and bond energy, vibrational degrees of freedom, idea of vibrational frequencies of different
The infrared region, Molecular vibrations, significance of Hook’s law and selection rules. The
infrared spectrum. Fingerprint region and its significance. Effect of resonance, inductive effect
and H-bonding on infrared absorptions. Characteristic absorptions of Alkanes, alkenes, alkynes,
alcohols, ethers, carbonyl compounds, amines and carboxylic acids and their derivatives.
Ultraviolet Spectroscopy: The electromagnetic spectrum. Beer-Lambert law, molar absorptivity,
presentation and analysis of electronic spectra. Types of electronic excitations. Effects of
conjugation and solvents on absorption. Chromophores and auxochromes. Bathochromic and
hypsochromic shifts. Ultraviolet spectra of enes and enones. Prediction of maxima of enes and
enones using Woodward’s rules.
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Basic principles of NMR spectroscopy. Shielding
and deshielding of protons. The chemical shift. Equivalent and non-equivalent protons. Spin-spin
splitting, coupling constants for vicinal, geminal and long range couplings. Characteristic
functional group NMR absorptions. The NMR spectra of ethyl bromide, ethanol, acetaldehyde,
ethyl acetate, methyl propionate, toluene and acetophenone.
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