Chemistry Study Material For 4th Semester Kashmir University

Chemistry Study Material For 4th Semester Kashmir University

Syllabus: Students are Advised to check syllabus on official website of Kashmir University.

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Unit-I Coordination and Bioinorganic Chemistry: (16 Contact hours)

Coordination Chemistry:

Experimental verification of Werner’s theory. Effective Atomic number: Concept and its 


Stereochemistry of Coordination compounds: With coordination numbers 2-6; Optical and

Geometrical isomers of MA4B2, MA3B3 and MABCD type Complexes.

Bonding in Complexes: Comparison of valence bond and Crystal field theories; CFT of

tetrahedral, square planner and octahedral systems. Factors affecting magnitude of ∆ ; pairing 

energy and CFSE of weak and strong field ligands. Limitations of Crystal field theory. 

Applications of Coordination compounds. Jahn Teller Distortion.

Bioinorganic Chemistry:

Biomolecules and their Metal coordination behaviour: Proteins, Nucleic acids and Lipids. 

Abundance of elements in living systems; Concept and Criteria for essentiality of elements in 

living systems.

Distribution and biological role of essential elements in life: Na+

, K+

, Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+ and


Haemoglobin and Chlorophyl: Structural and Biological role.

Unit-II Amines and Nitrogen bearing

 Heterocyclic compounds:

(14 Contact hours)

Amines: Classification and factors affecting basicity of amines.Mechanistic detailes(wherever

applicable) of methods of formation of alkyl and arylamines through reduction of nitro 

compounds and nitriles.Gabriel-Phthalamide reaction and Hofmann rearrangement. Mechanisms 

involved in the formation and reactions of arenediazonium salts including Azo coupling.

Heterocyclic compounds bearing one nitrogen atom: Stuctural features of pyrrole,pyrrolidine,

pyridine and piperidine and comparative account of their basic strength.Aromaticity and 

electrophilic substitution reactions of pyrrole and their comparison with those of furan and 

thiophene.Mechanisms involved in the preparations of Indole and quinoline using Fischer-Indole 

and Bishlier-Napierlaski syntheses.

Unit-III States of Matter: 

Gaseous State: Deviation of gases from ideal behavior, van der Waal’s equation of state.

Critical Phenomenon: PV isotherms of real gases, continuity of states, the isotherms of van der

Waal’s equation. Relationship between critical constants and van der Waal’s constants, the law of 

corresponding states, reduced equation of state.

Molecular velocities: Root mean square, average and most probable velocities; qualitative

discussion of the Maxwell’s distribution of molecular velocities. Collision number, mean free 

path and collision diameter.

Liquid State: Liquification of gases and adiabatic expansion. Intermolecular forces. Structure of

liquids (a qualitative description), structural differences between solids, liquids and gases.

Solid State: Symmetry elements in crystals, Lattice planes and Miller indices. X-ray diffraction

by crystals, derivation of Bragg’s equation and its application. Interplanar distances in terms of 

miller indices. Determination of crystal structure by Laue’s method and powder method. 

Systematic absence of diffraction lines in the X-ray pattern of cubic crystals with reference to 

NaCl, KCl & CsCl. 

Unit-IV Spectroscopy:

(18 Contact hours)

Spectroscopy: Electromagnetic radiation, regions of the spectrum, basic features of different

spectrometers. Statement of Born-Oppenheimer approximation.

Rotational spectrum: Moment of inertia, classification of molecules on the basis of moment of

inertia. Energy of a rigid diatomic rotor, selection rules for rotational transition and associated 

spectrum, relative population of rotational levels and spectral intensity, determination of bond 


Vibrational Spectrum: Classical and quantum mechanical (qualitative) treatment of simple

harmonic oscillator, selection rules for vibrational transition, pure vibrational spectrum of a 

diatomic molecule, determination of force constant, relation of force constant with bond length 

and bond energy, vibrational degrees of freedom, idea of vibrational frequencies of different 

functional groups.

The infrared region, Molecular vibrations, significance of Hook’s law and selection rules. The 

infrared spectrum. Fingerprint region and its significance. Effect of resonance, inductive effect 

and H-bonding on infrared absorptions. Characteristic absorptions of Alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, 

alcohols, ethers, carbonyl compounds, amines and carboxylic acids and their derivatives.

Ultraviolet Spectroscopy: The electromagnetic spectrum. Beer-Lambert law, molar absorptivity,

presentation and analysis of electronic spectra. Types of electronic excitations. Effects of 

conjugation and solvents on absorption. Chromophores and auxochromes. Bathochromic and 

hypsochromic shifts. Ultraviolet spectra of enes and enones. Prediction of maxima of enes and 

enones using Woodward’s rules.

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Basic principles of NMR spectroscopy. Shielding 

and deshielding of protons. The chemical shift. Equivalent and non-equivalent protons. Spin-spin 

splitting, coupling constants for vicinal, geminal and long range couplings. Characteristic 

functional group NMR absorptions. The NMR spectra of ethyl bromide, ethanol, acetaldehyde, 

ethyl acetate, methyl propionate, toluene and acetophenone.

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