Education Notes For 5th Semester

Education Notes For 5th Semester

There are two types of  notes one hs only two units and second has all units and these two pdf’s are different.

Education Notes For 5th Semester,KU updates,KU study materials,KU results,
Kashmir university study materials


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Meaning of Secondary Education:

Secondary Education in ordinary sense means that education which occupies the second stage in the structural ladder of National education system. At present it is a four year course comprising of class 9th. to class 12th.

First pdf file


Second Pdf File Below

According to National Policy on Education 1986, secondary education should include 2 years of high school and 2 years of senior  
secondary school. Thus from the above we can say that education which is imparted after the completion of elementary education is called secondary education.

 
Objectives:

We can highlight the objectives of secondary education  as under:

Second pdf file


a. Development of Democratic Citizenship:-

Citizenship in a democracy is a very exciting and challenging responsibility for which  
every citizen has to be trained. Democracy can be successful only if the citizens are conscious of their rights and duties. It indicates the development of intellectual, moral and social qualities which cannot  
grow of their own accord. In a democratic social order, the individual must exercise his or her own independent judgment in all kinds of complicated social, economic and political issues.


b. Improvement of vocational efficiency:

The secondary education has stressed upon the need of making technical and  
vocational efficiency as the main objective. Students should be taught to appreciate the dignity of work and to realize that prosperity and self fulfillment is possible only through work.

c. Development of personality:-

According to secondary education commission, secondary education must help our students to realize the sources of creative energy so that they must be able to appreciate their cultural heritage and give a place of honor to the subjects like art, craft, music, dancing and the development of habits.


d. Education for leadership:-

According to secondary education
commission, secondary education should not be a preparation for university education only but should discharge their duties 
efficiently. Hence secondary education should aim at training the students to assume the responsibility of leadership isocial, political, cultural and industrial fields.


Objectives of Secondary education according to National policy of education (NPE1986):-

NPE has set the following aims of education:

i. All round development:- Education should aim at all-round development of students.

ii. Development of socialism, secularism and democracy:-Education should refine sensitivity and perception that contribute to national cohesion, scientific temper and independence of mind and spirit. This will automatically lead the development of socialism, secularism and democracy.

iii. National self reliance:- Education should aim at developing national self reliance by preparing manpower for the development of economy at different levels. To achieve this aim there should be provision of various courses and education should be vacationalized. 

iv. International co-operation and peaceful co-existence:-Indian philosophers have treated the whole world as on family. 
Therefore education is necessary for maintaining and strengthening the philosophy by creating international 
understanding in the students. 

Problems of secondary education or (Present Status)

There has been a general criticism against secondary education in index. A number of points has been raised against it. The secondary education commission (1952-53) and Kothari education commission, after a thorough study expressed dissatisfaction against secondary education prevailing in the country.
Secondary education commission pointed out the following defects in the existing secondary education.
I. Isolated from real life:-The education given in our school is isolated from real life. It does not give students insight into the every day world in which they are living. That is why when they come out of the school after completing education, they feel ill�adjusted and can’t take their place confidently and competently in the community.
II. Narrow and one sided:- All-round development of personality is the university accepted aim of education. But our presently 
system of secondary education is totally unable to fulfill this aim.It trains the students only in academic skills of reading and 
writing .Other aspects of personality such as emotions tastes and practical attitudes are largely ignored.
III. Fails to create self-confidence:- As secondary education is isolated from real life it fails to create self- confidence in the 
students.
IV. Over crowded classes:- The increase in the size of class has considerably reduced personal contact between student and 
teacher .Besides this the number of students is increasing day by day but this rapid increasing is not in proportion of teaching 
and personal & instructional material. Education is supported to train the character and inculcate sense of discipline in the 
students .But it is not possible in over crowed classes.
V. English as a medium of instruction ;- English as a medium of instruction hampers the progress of students; The students who
does not possess special linguistic ability remained handicapped in the studies instead of their intelligence.
Faulty examination system :- Examination system is rigid unreliable and stereotyped. It curbs the teachers’ initiative, the mental and physical strength of the students. It discourages the spirit of experimentation.
Q: What is Vocationalization of education at secondary level?

Ans:-Vocationalization of education means learning of skills or range of skills through the study of technologies and related sciences. In other words it means giving a vocational touch to education in order 
to bring it closer to productivity in agricultural and industry.
Kothari education commission (1964-66) states that ‘Vocationalization of education is not be given in place of general education. But both vocational courses should go side by side. There should be no separation between the two. General educational courses should have the elements of vocational education and vocational education courses should have elements of general education.
Higher Education:-
It represents the most vital phase of educational ladder comprising of college and university education. Higher education is largely managed by government sector to improve its standard and functional mechanism.
Problems of quality control


 Higher education is facing a number of problems. One of them is the problem of 
quality control. The quality of higher education is low. Educational standards are 
falling day by day. There is a wide gap between standard of higher education in India and those in the advanced countries. The main causes of quality control in India are:-
I. Low standard of degrees:- The average standard of our university teaching and 
examinations are low. These low standards have led many educationists to maintain 
that an average graduate of an Indian university is not very much superior to 
matriculate of a British school.
II. Low academic standard of university entrance:-An average university entrant has 
a very low academic standard and majority of the students are ill prepared that it 
becomes difficult for them to take avail of university education. It is due to the 
following causes:
a- Non availability of exit entrants:- Large number of university entrants are not 
suitable for higher education.
b- Poor school teaching:- The poor and average quality of teaching Provided at secondary level is responsible for low academic standard of university entrance. The students having passed the secondary education due to poor teaching conditions fails to understand and absorb the concepts and theories in higher education of their respective subjects.
c-Over crowded colleges:- Over crowded colleges without necessary staff, class room, 
laboratories, libraries and hostel accommodation has made it impossible for most of the colleges and universities to give full education at under graduate level.
III. Insufficient number of working days: – Less number of working days in the year 
is responsible for poor quality. It has been found that number of working days in 
most of colleges and universities in the country ranges between 120 to 125 in an 
academic session as compared to 180 in American universities besides the examination days.
IV.Lower standard of teaching: – Standard of teaching is increasingly falling down at higher education level as there is lack of co-ordination in teaching work lack of accommodation in class rooms and lower standard of knowledge of teacher.
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